Shipping: Schematic showing the total climate impact over 100 years of two example species - 'A' (shown in red) and 'B' (shown in blue). The uplift factor (UF, shown in green) is the total climate impact of A+B divided by the climate impact of B. The lifetime of the species B is 10 times longer than the lifetime of species A. Species A and B are indicative of shipping emissions / effects where, for example, non-CO2 emissions may result in a cooling of the atmosphere and therefore a negative climate impact and uplift factor.